Help your learners grasp the names and uses for the equipment they’ll encounter in this important practical

In titration, we use apparatus not often used in other experiments. It’s important to know why each piece of apparatus is used and its role in the titration.

Infographic poster, fact sheet and student worksheet. Display the poster in your classroom or on a projector. Alternatively, print it and use as a handout.

The accompanying activity requires learners to name, describe the purpose and draw a simple diagram of each piece of apparatus, with follow-up questions on how to use the equipment and accuracy of measurements.

## Did you know …?

The earliest titration was reported in 1729! It’s an ancient technique but is still carried out in modern laboratories.

## Accuracy

The 25 cmvolumetric pipettes we use in schools and colleges are grade B standard, which typically have an accuracy of ±0.06 cm3. This means that, when used correctly, the minimum volume delivered is 24.40 cm3 and the maximum volume delivered is 25.60 cm3.

Each reading you take from a burette has an accuracy of ± 0.05 cm3. When you take two readings, this accuracy is doubled. Because the volume delivered by the burette is variable, this accuracy has a bigger impact when you measure smaller volumes. This is clear when the accuracy is expressed as a percentage.

Both volumetric pipettes and burettes are more accurate than more commonly used apparatus such as measuring cylinders.

## Did you know …?

You don’t need to fill your burette to the 0.00 cm3 mark each time. You can easily calculate the volume delivered by subtracting the start reading from the end reading.

## Finding the end point

In titration, the end point is a complete reaction between the reactant solutions in the burette and the conical flask. You will often use an indicator to give a colour change, but some titrations are self-indicating.

## Did you know …?

Manual titrations can be time consuming, so some simple titrations are automated. However, automatic titrators cost from around £1000 to over £10,000, so it’s unlikely you’ll find one at a school!

## Want more posters for post-16 learners?

• #### Titration apparatus poster

Handout | PDF, Size 2.84 mb
• #### Titration apparatus fact sheet

PDF, Size 0.17 mb
• #### Titration apparatus unscaffolded student sheet

Handout | PDF, Size 0.19 mb
• #### Titration apparatus scaffolded student sheet

Handout | PDF, Size 0.23 mb
• #### Titration apparatus teacher notes and answers

Handout | PDF, Size 0.37 mb
• #### Titration apparatus fact sheet

Word, Size 0.45 mb
• #### Titration apparatus unscaffolded student sheet

Editable handout | Word, Size 0.64 mb
• #### Titration apparatus scaffolded student sheet

Editable handout | Word, Size 0.64 mb
• #### Titration appartus teacher notes and answers

Editable handout | Word, Size 0.95 mb