Classroom resources featuring activities from our Equilibria professional development course for teachers

This collection is most valuable to those who have attended this course and wish to put into practice with their students some of the ideas and activities presented as part of that event. Please note that this list is not exhaustive; not all trainer activities have a corresponding classroom resource. In some circumstances there is variation between the training resource and classroom resource.

A close-up photograph of an ice cube melting against a neutral background with three more ice cubes visible behind it

Post-16 thermodynamics tutorials

In association with

Thinking about how to teach thermodynamics? Try these tutorials, including videos and animations, to help post-16 students learn about the key topics.

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Equilibria starters 2 (16–18)

Quiz your students on the equilibrium constant and how to use it with these Starter for ten questions. 

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Equilibria starters 1 (16–18)

Quantify your students’ knowledge of equilibria with these Starter for ten activities covering dynamic equilibria, Le Châtelier’s principle and equilibria and industry. 



In association with

An introduction to ammonia.


Sulfuric Acid

In association with

An introduction to sulfuric acid production


Beyond Appearances: Students misconceptions about basic chemical ideas

Reviews of research on students’ misconceptions in conceptual areas of chemistry. Misconceptions are described and discussed, together with indications of their origins.

Ball balance


This programme is designed to develop students understanding through basic concepts such as reversible and irreversible reaction, looking at both physical and chemical changes, to dynamic equilibria and factors that affect equilibria. Working through the activities will also develop thinking and research skills.


Rates and equilibria

This activity demonstrates the links between the topics of rates of reaction and the equilibrium law. It provides students with an explanation of the equilibrium law and helps them explain why Le Chatelier’s principle works for temperature, concentration and pressure.

Pouring light yellow iron chloride solution into a beaker of clear potassium thiocyanate solution causing a chemical reaction changing the colour of the liquid to dark red

Equilibrium reactions and the factors affecting them | 16-18 years

Check common misconceptions about equilibrium reactions and the effects of concentration, catalysts and temperature using this lesson plan for 16–18 year olds.

A close-up photograph of silver-grey iodine crystals on a neutral background

Distribution of iodine between two immiscible solvents

In association with

Use this class experiment or demonstration to create an equilibrium distribution using iodine in two immiscible solvents. Includes kit list and safety instructions.


Measuring an equilibrium constant on a microscale

Use your microscale titration apparatus to determine the equilibrium constant for the reaction between silver(I) and iron(II) ions

A close-up image of a glass bottle of dilute hydrochloric acid with a blue stopper

The effect of concentration on equilibrium | Le Chatelier’s principle

In association with

Illustrate the reversible reaction between bismuth(III) oxychloride and bismuth(III) chloride in this demonstration. Includes kit list and safety instructions.

Solid iodine crystals in a glass beaker, with a purple vapour visible as sublimation occurs

The effect of concentration and temperature on an equilibrium | Le Chatelier’s principle

In association with

Try this demonstration to illustrate how changing chlorine concentration or temperature shifts the position of an equilibrium. Includes kit list and safety instructions.

Two coloured cobalt solutions - one pink, one blue

The equilibrium between two coloured cobalt species

In association with

In this demonstration the equilibrium between two different coloured cobalt species is disturbed. Le Chatelier’s principle is used to predict a colour change.

A close-up image of bubbles in fizzy water

Equilibria involving carbon dioxide in aqueous solution

In association with

Use this demonstration or class practical to illustrate changes to equilibria in carbonated soda water. Includes kit list and safety instructions.

A photograph of two sealed ampoules containing nitrogen dioxide; one is dark brown in colour, in a beaker of hot water, and one is light brown, in a beaker of ice water.

The effect of pressure and temperature on equilibrium | Le Chatelier’s principle

In association with

Try this demonstration to explore the effects of pressure and temperature on an equilibrium mixture with your students. Includes kit list and safety instructions.


Entropy and equilibrium

This activity shows the students the fundamental link between entropy and equilibrium and increases students’ understanding of scientific models. It highlights the importance of mathematical descriptions in physical chemistry.