Structure and bonding pre-16

Classroom resources featuring activities from our Structure and bonding pre-16 professional development course for teachers

This collection is most valuable to those who have attended this course and wish to put into practice with their students some of the ideas and activities presented as part of that event. Please note that this list is not exhaustive; not all trainer activities have a corresponding classroom resource. In some circumstances there is variation between the training resource and classroom resource.

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Chocolate and structure experiment

In association with

The structure of a substance affects its properties and this is also true for chocolate. In this experiment you will melt and re-harden chocolate to change its structure. You will then compare the taste, texture and melting point of chocolate vs its melted and re-hardened form.

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A solid-solid reaction between lead nitrate and potassium iodide

In association with

Prove that two solids can react together by using white lead nitrate and white potassium iodide to make yellow lead iodide.

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Diffusion in liquids

In association with

Demonstrate the diffusion that takes place in liquids using colourless crystals of lead nitrate and potassium iodide at opposite sides of a petri dish of deionised water.

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Spot the bonding

Chemistry is a conceptual subject and, in order to explain many of these concepts, teachers use models to describe and explain the microscopic world and relate it to the macroscopic properties of matter. This resource is designed to provide strategies for dealing with some of the misconceptions that students have ...

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Interactions

This resource is designed to provide strategies for dealing with some of the misconceptions that students have in the form of ready-to-use classroom resources.

Yellow sulfur powder

Allotropes of sulfur

In association with

Observe the changes in colour and consistency of sulfur as you heat it, melt it and eventually boil it.

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Heating Group 1 metals in air and in chlorine

In association with

This is a demonstration that shows the reactions of Group 1 metals in air and in chlorine.  It does not clearly show the trends in reactivity of Group 1 metals, which are better demonstrated by the reactions in water, which follow on well from this demonstration.

A close up of someone using a spoon to add sulfur powder to a weighing boat on top of a balance

Iron and sulfur reaction

In association with

This demonstration or class experiment shows the exothermic reaction of iron and sulphur. Includes kit list and safety instructions.

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Hydrogen fluoride

This resource is designed to provide strategies for dealing with some of the misconceptions that students have in the form of ready-to-use classroom resources.

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Chemical stability

Chemistry is a conceptual subject and, in order to explain many of these concepts, teachers use models to describe and explain the microscopic world and relate it to the macroscopic properties of matter. This resource is designed to provide strategies for dealing with some of the misconceptions that students have ...

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Trends in reactivity in the periodic table

This could be used to follow up some work on the periodic table where the trends in reactivity in groups 1 and 7 have been identified. It can be used as a differentiated activity for the more able students within a group.

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Jets of liquids

Investigate what happens when different charged plastics are held near a jet of water issuing from a burette, and explain your observations.

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An analogy for the atom

Chemistry is a conceptual subject and, in order to explain many of these concepts, teachers use models to describe and explain the microscopic world and relate it to the macroscopic properties of matter. This resource is designed to provide strategies for dealing with some of the misconceptions that students have ...

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Reaction between aluminium and iodine

In association with

Treat your students to a spectacular demonstration as aluminium and iodine are catalysed by water.

Sand explosion

Making silicon and silanes from sand

Heat magnesium and sand together to produce silicon by an exothermic reaction. 

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Supercooling - the energetics of freezing

In association with

Students melt sodium thiosulfate crystals, and these are then cooled to a state well below the melting point. The supercooled liquid will freeze rapidly on the addition of a crystal of sodium thiosulfate, or on stirring which seeds the crystallisation process. Temperature changes are observed throughout.

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Ionic bonding

An explanation often given for ionic bonding is that atoms lose or gain electrons to achieve noble gas configurations. This activity evaluates that as a complete explanation.

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Covalent bonding

This activity seeks to develop an understanding of covalent bonding in terms of energetic stability rather than full shells.