All Biological chemistry articles – Page 8

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day – Jul 25 : Rosalind Franklin was born

    She carried out crucial x-ray crystallography experiments at King’s College London that helped Crick and Watson determine the structure of DNA. She also led pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic and polio viruses.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Apr 12 : Otto Meyerhoff was born

    He was awarded half the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1922 for describing the way muscle tissue absorbs oxygen (O2) and converts it to lactic acid. He also discovered that glycogen is converted into lactic acid when the muscle contracts.

  • female smelling flowers
    The Mole

    Sniffing out an explanation

    2012-11-01T10:58:00Z

    It’s strange to think that no one knows exactly how smell works. Josh Howgego explains the chemistry behind the puzzle

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Apr 08 : Melvin Calvin was born

    He is most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle, the pathway for carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation in plants. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961 for this work.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Apr 04 : Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Merck, Sharp and Dohme were the first to artificially synthesise Vitamin B6, which is required for good health. It has a role in the production of haemoglobin – the molecule that carries oxygen (O 2 ) around our bodies – and regulates blood sugar levels. Related resources: ...

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - May 31 : Louis Ignarro was born

    Ignarro was co-awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1998 for the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signalling molecule, controlling the expansion and contraction of blood vessels.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Feb 26 : Otto Wallach died

    He devised a systematic analysis method to determine the molecular structure of the terpenes found in fragrant essential oils. Up until this point, few terpenes had been isolated in their pure form and structural information was very limited.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Mar 26 : Christian Anfinsen was born

    He received half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1972 for research on ribonuclease and amino acid sequences. He identified the connection between the molecular structure of ribonuclease and its biological function.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Mar 25 : HIV has no latent period

    These papers showed that HIV-positive patients who had not developed AIDS still showed high levels of the HIV virus in their lymphatic system, implying that the virus actively replicates even when no symptoms are detected.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Oct 24 : Henrik Dam found vitamin K

    When Dam fed chickens a diet low in cholesterol, he found that their blood did not clot. However, he discovered that it wasn’t just cholesterol but also a vitamin that they were lacking. He called this Vitamin K, after the German word for coagulation, “koagulation”.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - May 21 : Bengt Samuelsson was born

    He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1982 with Sune Bergström and John Vane for their work on how prostaglandins are formed and metabolised. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that participate in a wide range of bodily functions.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Jun 19 : Ernst Chain was born

    Chain and his partner Howard Florey extracted and isolated the antibiotic penicillin from Penicillium mould nine years after its accidental discovery by Alexander Fleming. Chain, Florey and Fleming shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for their work.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Nov 19 : James Sumner was born

    He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946 with John Howard Northrop and Wendell tanley for the discovery that enzymes can be crystallized. This allowed him to show that enzymes are in fact proteins.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Jun 17 : Donald James Cram died

    He shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles Pedersen for their work on host-guest chemistry, where two or more molecules or ions bond in unique ways due to their structure. This has allowed the synthesis of molecules that mimic the action of enzymes.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - May 14 : First smallpox vaccination

    The English doctor inserted pus from a cowpox pustule into an incision on the arm of eight-year old James Phipps. From then on Phipps was immune to smallpox, one of the most virulent killer diseases of the time.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - Jun 12 : Fritz Lipmann was born

    Lipmann was awarded half the 1953 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in nutrition. Coenzyme A is a molecule required in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day – Sep 11 : Rudolf Schoenheimer died

    He developed the technique of “tagging” molecules with radioactive isotopes. This made it possible to trace the pathways of organic molecules in animals and plants, and revolutionized metabolic studies.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day – Sep 10 : DNA fingerprinting

    He identified that every individual has a unique genetic code, so people could be identified by their genetic fingerprints. The technique has since helped to solve crime investigations and allowed the identification of family members in paternity cases.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day - May 07 : Arda Alden Green was born

    She made many contributions to the field of biochemistry. Green’s most notable research was on the isolation and characterisation of proteins, in particular haemoglobin and the enzymes responsible for bioluminescence. She received the 1958 Garvan Medal, which recognises special service to chemistry by women.

  • Image
    Resource

    On This Day – Sep 04 : Stanford Moore was born

    He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Christian Anfinsen and William H. Stein in 1972 for their work on the structure of ribonuclease enzymes. These enzymes catalyse the degradation of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and are involved in the destruction of RNA viruses.