All Atomic structure articles – Page 4

  • Illustration of electron orbitals
    Feature

    The trouble with the aufbau principle

    2013-11-07T00:00:00Z

    Generations of teachers are misleading their charges by teaching a sloppy version of the aufbau principle, claims Eric Scerri

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    Ri Christmas Lectures® 2012: Atomic Structure

    A teaching resource on atomic structure and the Periodic Table, supported by video clips from the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures® 2012. Video: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table video

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    Elements

    Neon

    2013-05-01T00:00:00Z

    John Emsley looks at the element that shines brightly and keeps cool but continues to puzzle

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    On This Day - Oct 31 : Robert Mulliken died

    He was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on chemical bonds and describing the electronic structure of molecules using the molecular orbital method. His research still leads this field.

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    On This Day - Apr 30 : Discovery of the electron

    Thomson was studying the properties of cathode rays, and found that they were over 1,000 times lighter than the hydrogen (H) atom and that they were the same mass irrespective of the parent atom. He called these particles “corpuscules”, but scientists later dubbed them “electrons”.

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    On This Day - Feb 29 : Bohr issued bowl of balls

    Danish physicist Niels Henrik David Bohr made fundamental contributions to the understanding of atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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    On This Day - Apr 25 : Wolfgang Pauli was born

    He is most famous for the Pauli “exclusion principle”, which states that in an atom no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1945 for his work.

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    On This Day – Jul 24 : Sir James Chadwick died

    He received the Nobel Prize in Physics 1935 for his discovery of the neutron, a subatomic particle with zero electrical charge. Neutrons are found in the nucleus of all elements (except hydrogen) along with protons, which carry a positive charge.

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    On This Day - Oct 20 : James Chadwick was born

    By bombarding the element beryllium (Be) with alpha particles, he discovered a neutral particle in the atom’s nucleus - the neutron. Chadwick subsequently led the UK’s research team investigating the atomic bomb in World War II.

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    On This Day – Sep 19 : Chemical structure defined

    Chemical structure refers to the way atoms are arranged within molecules. Butlerov realised that chemical compounds are not a random cluster of atoms and functional groups, but structures with definite order.

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    On This Day - Jun 09 : Ben Mottelson was born

    Together with Aage N. Bohr and James Rainwater, Mottelson developed models of the atomic nucleus that considered the effects of internal structure on properties such as charge distribution. The trio won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics.

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    On This Day - Mar 07 : The atomic nucleus revealed

    The New Zealand chemist explained that when firing alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold, some particles bounced back. From this he deduced an atom has a hard, dense, positively charged centre: the nucleus. Related resources: Understanding how atoms are made up Royal Institution Christmas Lectures® 2012: ...

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    On This Day - Jun 07 : Robert Mulliken was born

    He won the 1966 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing the molecular orbital theory. Mulliken carried out the “fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure” used to determine the molecular structure of a compound.

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    On This Day - Oct 07: Niels Bohr atom

    He described the atom as a miniature solar system with electrons revolving around a heavy nucleus. He received the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physics for “his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.”

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    On This Day - Oct 04 : Kenichi Fukui was born

    His career was devoted to explaining the nature of chemical reactions. He shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his investigation into the mechanisms of chemical reactions. Specifically, this was for his work on the role of frontier orbitals, which have loosely bonded electrons.

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    On This Day - May 03 : George Thomson was born

    Thomson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1937 with Clinton Davisson for their discovery of the wave properties of electrons when diffracted by crystals. He was the son of Nobel laureate Joseph John Thompson.

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    On This Day – Aug 02 : Discovery of positrons

    He was examining chamber photographs of cosmic rays when he realised that the tracks orientation revealed the existence of positively charged particles too small to be protons. These sub-atomic particles have the same mass as an electron, but with a positive charge.

  • A screenshot showing a completed gridlock puzzle, with a grid containing the names and formulas of four alkanes
    Resource

    28 chemistry puzzles for 14-16 years

    Use these sudoku-inspired puzzles with printable worksheets and answers to help 14–16 year olds consolidate their understanding of key chemical concepts.

  • A screenshot showing a completed gridlock puzzle, with a grid containing information about hybrid orbitals in molecular geometry
    Resource

    45 chemistry puzzles for 16-18 years

    Try these chemistry puzzles based on sudoku to help 16–18 year old students consolidate their knowledge about key topics, with printable worksheets and answers.

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    Feature

    Chemical Bonding

    2011-05-01T00:00:00Z

    A masterclass in teaching the topic of bonding, basing chemical explanation on physical forces