All Elements and the periodic table articles – Page 10

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    On This Day - Dec 30 : Tungsten filaments patent

    American physicist William David Coolidge brought tungsten (W) from laboratory obscurity to the centre of the industrial stage and gave the x-ray a central role in the progress of medicine throughout the world.

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    Lithium

    2012-11-01T00:00:00Z

    John Emsley investigates the element that is the lightest of metals and celebrated in song

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    On This Day - May 30 : Krypton was discovered

    Krypton (Kr) was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris Travers. Its name is derived from the Greek “kryptos”, meaning hidden. Krypton is one of the rarest gases in the Earth’s atmosphere, accounting for only 1 part per million by volume.

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    On This Day - Nov 30 : Smithson Tennant was born

    He discovered iridium (Ir) and osmium (Os), the latter named for the unpleasant odour of some of its compounds (from the Greek word ‘osme’ meaning odour). He also proved that diamonds are pure carbon.

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    On This Day - Nov 29 : Iodine was discovered

    The discovery was made during the process of producing potassium nitrate for gunpowder and was made public in a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France. Its name is derived from the Greek ‘iodes’ meaning violet. 

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    On This Day - Apr 27 : Philip Abelson was born

    He proposed the gas diffusion process to separate uranium-235 and uranium-238 needed to develop the atomic bomb. He also co-discovered the element neptunium (Np) with Edwin McMillan.

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    On This Day - Nov 26 : Discovery of niobium

    Now known as niobium (Nb), this metal element is very similar to tantalum (Ta), and was in fact confused with it during parts of the 19th century. This lead to it being renamed niobium after the daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology.

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    On This Day – Sep 25 : Separation of iron

    The method from this English chemist, which used water, ammonia and muriatic acid, was simpler than other popular methods of extracting manganese metal from its ore. Manganese is used in important alloys, and one of its oxides, permanganate, is used in analysis such as redox titrations.

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    On This Day - Dec 25 : William Gregor was born

    2012-09-27T13:12:00Z

    He discovered the element titanium (Ti), which he originally named manaccanite after the Manaccan valley where he found it. A few years later, it was rediscovered by Martin Klaproth who thought it was a new element and gave it the current name of titanium.

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    On This Day - Feb 25 : Ida Noddack was born

    Noddack co-discovered rhenium (Re) while working with her future husband Walter Noddack. They named the element after the river Rhine. Rhenium is one of the rarest metals on earth and is used in filaments and for catalysts in the chemicals industry.

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    On This Day - Dec 23 : Axel Cronstedt was born

    He discovered the element nickel (Ni) in 1751, describing the metal as “kupfernickel” – the Devil’s copper (Cu). He is one of the founders of modern mineralogy and developed a procedure involving the use of blowpipes for analysing the composition of minerals.

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    On This Day - Dec 22 : Liquid oxygen was made

    The experiment was notified to the Academy of Sciences in Paris in a telegram from Pictet in Geneva: “Oxygen liquefied to-day under 320 atmospheres and 140 degrees of cold by combined use of sulfurous and carbonic acid”.

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    On This Day - Jun 21 : Boron was isolated

    The French pair beat the English chemist Humphrey Davy to it by just nine days. Boron (B) is named after one of its compounds, borax, which had been used as a glazing agent for hundreds of years.

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    On This Day - Nov 21 : Hieronymus Richter was born

    He was the co-discoverer of indium (In), an element used to form transparent electrodes in liquid crystal displays in computers, televisions and touch screens.

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    On This Day - Mar 21 : Plutonium was named

    Plutonium (Pu) took its name from the dwarf planet Pluto. First discovered by Glenn Seaborg and colleagues as a product of nuclear fission, traces of plutonium were later found in a rock formation by Darleane Hoffmann.

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    On This Day – Aug 20 : Plutonium iodate isolated

    American nuclear chemists Burris Cunningham and Louis Werner isolated a microgram of plutonium(IV) iodate, the first visible quantity to the human eye. Today, plutonium is widely used in the production of nuclear energy.

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    On This Day - Dec 20 : Jaroslav Heyrovskȳ was born

    He was awarded the 1959 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of polarography, an analytical tool that uses a dropping mercury (Hg) electrode to investigate the effects of varying currents and potentials of a compound.

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    On This Day - Apr 19 : Glen Seaborg was born

    Seaborg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1951 with Edwin McMillan for the discovery of many transuranium elements. The element seaborgium (Sg) is named in his honour.

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    On This Day - Apr 18 : Paul de Boisbaudran born

    His most significant work was in spectroscopy and its application to the rare earth metals. He analysed the spectra of 35 elements using a Bunsen burner or electric spark to induce luminescence and consequently discovered the lanthanides samarium (Sm), dysprosium (Dy) and europium (Eu).

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    On This Day - Mar 17 : Carl Jacob Löwig was born

    He discovered bromine (Br) while adding chlorine (Cl) and ether to spring water and found a red coloured substance. While Löwig investigated this substance, Antoine Balard published his independent discovery of bromine.