In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. The gas is used directly to investigate any reaction with water or halide ions in solution.

Class practical

In this experiment chlorine gas is generated on a microscale from bleach solution. The gas is used directly to investigate any reaction with water or halide ions in solution.

Lesson organisation

This is a class experiment in which students, using microscale apparatus, can generate chlorine gas safely themselves in the open laboratory and investigate how it reacts with water and halide ions in solution.

This activity should take about 20 minutes.

Apparatus Chemicals

Goggles

Each pair of students requires:

Student sheet with instructions and diagram of apparatus (see Learn Chemistry for access to the students sheet)

Clear plastic sheet – e.g. OHP film

Plastic Petri dish + lid (9 cm)

Plastic teat pipette (see Note 1)

Scissors

Spatula (optional)

Access to solutions contained in plastic pipettes:

Sodium chlorate(I) solution, 10–14% w/v chlorine (CORROSIVE) Also known as sodium hypochlorite (Note 2)

Dilute hydrochloric acid, 1 M

Sodium hydroxide solution, 1 M (CORROSIVE)

Potassium (or sodium) chloride solution, 0.2 M

Potassium (or sodium) bromide solution, 0.2 M

Potassium (or sodium) iodide solution, 0.2 M

Optional (see Teaching notes):

Silver nitrate solution, 0.1 M, a few drops

Zinc oxide powder (DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT), spatula tip

Zinc sulfide powder, spatula tip

Blue Litmus or Universal Indicator paper, about 1 cm

Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.

Health & Safety and Technical notes

Read our standard health & safety guidance

Wear eye protection (goggles). Ensure laboratory is well ventilated.

Sodium chlorate(I) solution, Also known as sodium hypochlorite NaOCl(aq), (CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book. 

Chlorine, Cl2(g), (TOXIC, DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.  Chlorine gas is produced in small quantities in this experiment, however, care should be taken if large numbers of students are carrying out this experiment simultaneously. The lab should be well ventilated and students with asthma should be warned not to inhale the gas. Chlorine should be generated for no longer than is necessary to observe the results.

Dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book.

Sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH(aq), (CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book. 

Halide solutions: potassium chloride, KCl(aq), potassium bromide, KBr(aq), potassium iodide, KI(aq) - see CLEAPSS Hazcards.

Silver nitrate solution, AgNO3(aq) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard and CLEAPSS Recipe Book. 

Zinc oxide, ZnO(s) (DANGEROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT) and zinc sulfide, ZnS(s) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.  

1 The ‘reaction vessel’ for the microscale apparatus is the hemispherical dome cut from the top of a plastic teat pipette. Students may cut this themselves with suitable scissors, or it can be provided.

2 Commercial chlorine-based bleach solutions can be used instead of sodium chlorate(I) solution supplied by laboratory suppliers but they may not be sufficiently concentrated to generate enough chlorine. They are often less than 5% even when fresh. Some commercial bleaches now also contain detergents, which foam when chlorine is generated. They should not be used. Household ‘bleaches’ based on peroxide are becoming more widely available and do not contain chlorine, therefore they should not be used.

Procedure

a Cover the worksheet containing the diagram of the microscale setup with the plastic sheet.

b Place the Petri dish directly over the circle on the worksheet.

c Use the microscale reaction vessel provided or make one by cutting the hemispherical top off the teat part of a plastic pipette. Place this in the centre of the Petri dish, as shown in the diagram.

d At the corners of the triangle on the worksheet place two to three drops of the test solutions indicated on the diagram. Moisten the small piece of indicator paper and place it in the space between any two of the test solutions, along the side of the triangle.

e Place two drops of bleach solution in the reaction vessel and add three drops of dilute hydrochloric acid. Quickly place the lid on the Petri dish to prevent any chlorine escaping.

f Record your observations over the next 10 mins. The greenish-yellow colour of chlorine gas may be visible in the Petri dish, especially if viewed from the side. The indicator paper turns red and then becomes bleached. The sodium chloride solution is unaffected. The potassium bromide solution gradually turns pale yellow due to the formation of bromine. The potassium iodide solution turns yellow-brown due to the liberation of iodine by the chlorine.

g When the reactions have finished, add three drops of sodium hydroxide solution to the reaction vessel to stop the generation of chlorine and replace the lid.

Teaching notes

The effect of chlorine gas on the moist indicator paper shows that it dissolves to some extent in water and reacts to produce an acidic and strongly bleaching solution. The reaction is the reverse of the reaction used to generate the gas from bleach. Acidifying bleach solution produces chloric(I) acid, HOCl, which decomposes to produce chlorine:

HOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) → Cl2(g) + H2O(l)

When chlorine dissolves in water, it reacts to form the strong acid, HCl, and the weak but strongly oxidising acid, HOCl, which is responsible for the bleaching properties.

The displacement reactions involving chlorine and the solutions containing halide show that chlorine displaces bromine and iodine from solution:

Cl2(g) + 2KX(aq) → 2KCl(aq) + X2(aq), where X = Br or I.

or Cl2(g) + 2X-(aq) → 2Cl-(aq) + X2(aq)

This establishes the trend in reactivity of the halogens down Group 17, which could be extended by investigating the reaction of bromine water with halide ions in solution. The reactivity is related to the oxidising power of the halogens, which decreases down the group.

The tendency of halogen atoms to act as oxidising agents by accepting an electron can be related to their atomic radius. The smaller the halogen atom, the stronger the attraction of the nucleus on the electrons in the outer shell. Thus fluorine attracts an extra electron to complete its outer shell, most strongly, and is therefore the most powerful oxidising agent in the Group.

This microscale apparatus can be used in a similar way to investigate other chlorine reactions. The solutions at the three corners of the triangle can be replaced by silver nitrate solution, solid zinc sulfide and zinc oxide respectively. The silver nitrate solution becomes cloudy as the reaction of chlorine with water produces chloride ions in solution (see above), which then forms a silver chloride precipitate.

The zinc sulfide takes on a yellowish tinge due to the formation of elemental sulfur:

Cl2(g) + ZnS(s) → ZnCl2(s) + S(s)

Chlorine is reacting as an oxidising agent again. The zinc oxide shows no change although some oxygen gas is probably produced in a similar reaction.

Health & Safety checked, July 2016 

Credits

This Practical Chemistry resource was developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry.

© Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry

Weblinks

Microscale chemistry – Experiments in miniature

Page last updated July 2016