All Practical skills and safety articles – Page 9

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    Steam distillation

    The extraction of a crude mixture containing water-insoluble material (such as natural products) can be achieved by co-distillation with steam. Video: Steam distillation video

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    Melting point determination

    The measurement of melting points is a relatively straightforward procedure that is carried out to determine the purity of a compound or to assist with its identification. A pure compound will melt over a relatively narrow temperature range, impurities both lower and widen the temperature range over which a compound ...

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    Drying liquids

    There are many instances when it is necessary to remove traces of water from a solution or liquid. One common example is the drying of an organic layer after a solvent extraction. The technique involves adding a suitable solid drying agent to the liquid followed by its removal by gravity ...

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    Titration

    The addition of one reagent (the titrant) from a burette to another reagent until an end-point is reached is known as a titration. These have to be done with great care and precision to establish reliable and accurate results. Video: Titration video

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    Cooling mixtures

    Cooling baths are very useful in chemistry labs to control exotherimc reactions. In this resource we share various recipes for making cooling baths to temperatures below 0°C. There are many instances where you will need cooling as part of the procedure, for example in recrystallisation, carrying out reactions at ...

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    Distillation

    Distillation separates liquids on the basis of them having different boiling points. Video: Distillation video

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    Solvent extraction

    2016-06-16T11:32:00Z

    This technique uses two solvents which are immiscible, for example an organic solvent such as diethyl ether can be used to extract an organic compound from an aqueous solution leaving water soluble impurities behind. A variation of this is acid - base extraction where acidic or basic compounds are extracted ...

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    Recrystallisation

    Recrystallisation is a means of purifying solids. If carried out correctly the final product will be both of a high yield as well as pure. Video: Recrystallisation video

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    Vacuum filtration

    When a solid needs to be isolated from a solution it is normally done at a reduced pressure using a Buchner flask and Buchner funnel. Video: Vacuum filtration video

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    Standard solution

    A standard solution is a a solution of accurately known concentration prepared from a primary standard (a compound which is stable, of high purity, highly soluble in water and of a high molar mass to allow for accurate weighing) that is weighed accurately and made up to a fixed volume. ...

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    Soxhlet extraction

    When a compound of low solubility needs to be extracted from a solid mixture a Soxhlet extraction can be carried out. The technique places a specialised piece of glassware in-between a flask and a condenser. The refluxing solvent repeatedly washes the solid extracting the desired compound into the flask. ...

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    Mission starlight

    The mission? To protect astronauts from the effects of harmful UV light

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    Weighing compounds using a balance

    Weighing is done to ensure the correct amount of a reactant is added to a reaction, for the preparation of standard solutions or the weighing of a product to calculate a yield. Video: Weighing compounds using a balance video

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    Fractional distillation

    Fractional Distillation is used to separate compounds with boiling points that are close. Video: Fractional distillation video

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    Using a rotary evaporator

    A rotary evaporator is used to remove large amounts of solvent from solutions at a reduced pressure. This is often done to isolate a product from a chromatographic separation or a solvent extraction. Video: Using a rotary evaporator video

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    Running an infrared spectrum

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a technique which reveals the bonds present in a compound and therefore can be used to identify functional groups. A sample of reaction product can be analysed to confirm its composition by comparison to a pure sample, or to judge the extent of reaction by comparison ...

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    Hot gravity filtration

    This is the simplest kind of filtration when the solution to be filtered is poured through a filter paper in a filter funnel. The filtration of hot solutions through a funnel and fluted filter paper is often carried out as part of a recrystallisation. Gravity filtration is generally carried out ...

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    Volatile product distillation

    A technique to remove a volatile product from a reaction mixture to prevent further reaction taking place. Video: Volatile product distillation video

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    Clamping Quickfit glassware

    There are many different ways to assemble apparatus and it is important that you carefully follow the guidelines that might be in the practical script. This section illustrates the basic principles and good practice involved in putting together Quickfit glassware. Video: Clamping Quickfit glassware video ...

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    Vacuum distillation

    Vacuum distillation is a distillation carried out at reduced pressure to lower boiling points. This is particularly useful for distilling products of boiling points over 100 o C. Video: Vacuum distillation video